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材料成本上涨 家具调价成定局

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 房贷利息抵个税重大信号:非普通住房或排除在外 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

皇家地坪总经理陈遵厚:机遇与挑战并存 国家政策为地坪行业带来新机遇

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

勉强能。民主党需要再赢得24个席位,这意味着他们需要守住特朗普去年胜选的全部12个民主党选区,并拿下23个在大选中投票支持希拉里克林顿(Hillary Clinton)的共和党选区,另外再添上一两个选区。算起来形势对民主党不利,但从历史先例来看形势有利于民主党。历任总统所在的政党几乎总会在中期选举时丢掉一些众议院席位,有时丢得还挺多,特别是当在位总统的支持率低于50%的时候。看一看2010年的巴拉克奥巴马(Barack Obama)就知道了。
“This growth is further backed by Video Editing making an appearance at number 3 on the list with a 19% increase,” the report states, “as video content becomes one of the initial draws and call to actions for most customer-focused websites. Heavy video marketing through social media also increases this demand.”
It's almost TOO good. Soulful and aching and grand, Adele's theme to Skyfall is stunningly performed, and gives the distinct impression that someone tried to make the ultimate James Bond theme and had the talent to back it up. History and sensuousness have elevated two songs higher than Adele's contribution, at least in our eyes, but not by much.
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在NBA,很少人能防得住罗斯。那么,你可以想象,在罗斯的高中年代,有着和现在一样的NBA身板,要防住他更是天方夜谭。
‘The Americans’ Set in the Reagan era, this FX series is nearly as deceptive as KGB agents posing as suburban American couple: In its second season, “The Americans” proved to be a drama about love, family, friendship and mistrust disguised as a Cold War thriller.
贝莱德(BlackRock)的iShares亚太区主管陈蕙兰(Susan Chan)表示,ETF更受该地区机构投资者的欢迎。

它是一种受谅解和制度制约的权力争斗。
杨燕绥说道,为确保该计划顺利进行,中央政府必须夯实统筹基础养老金,做大职业年金,管好个人账户。
“这是真的“我必须去做这件事”的时刻了,”他说。
Baby Driver recently placed on the National Board of Review’s Top 10 list. The film holds a 93% on Rotten Tomatoes and took in over $100 million dollars at the box office.
三大能源机构近期表示,今年石油输出国组织(Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, 简称:欧佩克)以外国家的原油产量将增加,其中大部分来自美国的页岩油。除此之外,由于伊朗、伊拉克和利比亚可能会增产,中东地区的原油产量也许会增加数百万桶。所有这些势必会令油价承压。

Footnotes

  • 315消费者权益日即将来临 陶瓷质量检验战帷幕拉起
  • The fastest-rising sector is apparel, driven by Nike in sportswear as people pay more attention to health and fitness, and Zara, whose fast fashion is becoming increasingly popular in China.

Payouts also varied substantially between industries and cities. The average bonus at financial institutions was over Rmb17,200, while those in the education sector got less than half of that on average at less than Rmb7,500.
It all started when Beatty opened the envelope to read the winner for best picture. He looked confused, took a long pause and then glanced at Dunaway. "Come on!" Beatty handed the envelope to Dunaway, who announced: "La La Land!"
自从这家技术公司十年前开始发布这一年度报告以来,这是新闻首次成为最热门的搜索项。搜狐资深编辑兼网络趋势分析师陈女士(Vera Chan)说,出于各种原因,英国石油公司漏油事件成为了最热门的搜索话题。
"According to our survey last year, only 0.6 to 0.7 percent of students at universities were thinking about starting their own companies. The number among vocational school students was as high as 2.2 percent. However, the idea of vocational students starting businesses is related more to creating jobs for themselves, and the majority of them have chosen to have online shops."
也许你在地铁上上见过各种着装怪异迥异的角色出现,可应该没人在月台上见过大熊猫成群结队吧。
But the temperature of 1998 is now being surpassed every four or five years, and 2014 was the first time that happened without a significant El Ni?o. Gavin A. Schmidt, head of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies in Manhattan, said the next strong El Ni?o would probably rout all temperature records.

20天连开三次住房会议:住建部定调精准棚改精准调控

References

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